Kala Shareera

Sushruta mentioned Kala in Sharirastana, in “Garbhavyakaranam sahreeraadhyaya” as Kalas are internal linings between Dhatu and Ashaya and these are seven. These are developed during intrauterine life.
—In Garbhavastha during growth of embryo, the kleda which is present in between Dhatu and Ashaya gets converted or becomes pakwa by its action of usnatwa.(i.e. Agni) of that particular Dhatu and get covered with Snayu (tendinous sheath), Shlesma, and Jarayu (chorionic membrane) like Sara of plants Kala is formed. —It is formed from very little quantity of Rasa and essence of Dhatu (tissues) is also called by the synonym “Alpatwam” i.e. less. In akin to the heartwood of trees appear in the section, on cutting the section of the mamsa etc dhatus the kala appears.—Acharya Sushruta said that Kala is a membranous structure or covering, which is formed by Snayu (ligaments), Jarayu (fetal covering), Sleshma (coated with Kapha). 
Acharya Sushruta said that Kala is a membranous structure or covering, which is formed by Snayu (ligaments), Jarayu (fetal covering), Sleshma (coated with Kapha).


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1. Explain the concept of kala and its importance.

Ans : Kindly refer the given ppt

2. Write the definition and types of kalaa.

Ans :

Sushruta has described the Kala in the anatomical sense in his Garbha-vyakaranam chapter on embryology as Kalas are internal linings between dhatus and Ashaya and these are seven in number. These are developed during intrauterine life. Dalhana in his commentary analyzed the definition of Kala made by Sushruta. He has explained the meaning of Dhatwashayantarmaryada as in physiological status of Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Kapha, Pitta, Purisha etc hold the body, so they are called as dhatu and locating place of these dhatus is called as Ashaya. The internal limiting layer between such dhatu and Ashaya is referred as ‘Kala
Sushruta says that the Kalas are seven and are the limiting or lining substances (maryada) inside the containers (ashaya) or the Dhatus (according to Dhalhana’s commentary); between the Dhatus and Ashaya’s (according to Indu’s commentary and our understanding) the resultant meaning of both interpretations, however, is practically the same.

3. Explain the mamsadhara and rakta dhara kalaa.

Ans :

The first of these is the “Mamsadhara Kalas” (literally, ‘flesh holding Kala’) in which inside the flesh (held by it) may be seen the ramification of the ‘Siras’, ‘Dhamanis’, ‘Srotas’ and ‘Snayu’. The word ‘Mamsadhara Kala’ implies the flesh or muscle holding membranes, namely deep fascia and intermuscular septa, epimycium, endomycium and perimycium
This whole structure is compared to a lotus stalk which grows in a swampy area & its stalk penetrates the muddy water layer & spreads taking footage on the soil beneath. Taking into account Dalhaņācāryas commentary, the lotus stalk & the roots are compared to the Sirā, Dhamani etc. the thick muddy water beneath, which provides nexus for the roots, the Māmsadharā Kalā
Raktadhara Kala
The second Kala of Sushruta as described earlier is called “Raktadhara Kala” or that holding blood33. It is said to exist “inside the flesh generally and in the blood vessels particularly; also in the liver and spleen”. Sushruta also quotes a passage which says. The “oozing out of blood on cutting the flesh is like the oozing out of milk on cutting the plants that have a milky juice. These passages, therefore, clearly indicate that “Raktadhara Kala’ means nothing but the endothelial membrane that lines the capillaries (e.g. in flesh) generally and the blood vessels particularly and also the vascular organs such as liver and spleen

4. Explain the medo dhara and sleshma dhara kalaa.

Ans : The third Kala of Sushruta (as quoted earlier) is called Medodhara which means “the membrane that holds the Meda or fat”35. The Medas is said (by Sushruta) to exist in the abdomen (omentum) and is called Majja or Marrow when it is found inside the small and large bones. and moreover the Aņu Asthis are filled in with Sarakta-Meda This shows that Sushruta considered Medas and Majja as virtually the same substance and the membrane that holds the fat (e.g. the omentum deep fascia etc.) and the membrane that holds the marrow (the endosteal membrane) were grouped under the same heading “Medodhara Kala”. It is to be noted, however, that Sushruta quotes an ancient passage in this connection, which clearly distinguishes “Medas”, “Majja” and “Vasa” (Vasa-liquid fat in flesh) from one another.
The fourth Kala of Sushruta is called “Shleshmadhara” the membrane that holds the shleshma (lubricating substance) in the joints36. To clear it, Sushruta quotes an ancient passage which says “Just as the wheel moves freely when the axle is lubricated, so move the joints freely being closely applied and lubricated, with “shleshma”. This particular Shleshma is well known to Ayurvedists as one of the five kinds of Kapha called Shleshaka, which undoubtedly means the synovial fluid. Evidently, therefore, the “Shleshamdhara Kala” of Sushruta is not other than the synovial membrane of the joints.

5. Explain the pitta dhara and sukra dhara kalaa.

Ans :

The sixth Kala called “Pittadhara (holding the Pitta which stands for the digestive and absorptive apparatus) is described by Sushruta69 and his commentator Dalhana, as also by Vagbhata (in Astanga Sangraha) in unequivocal terms. It is said that “when the food travels down from the stomach ( Aamashaya) on its way to the colon ( Pakvashaya), it is retained on its way by this Kala which holds the Pitta”. This Pitta is further explained by the commentators using the expression “internal fire” (Agni) which, in Ayurvedic parlance, means the ferment groups in the digestive juices secreted in the small intestines, as also the absorptive apparatus. Pittadhara Kala, therefore, means the lining membranes of the small intestine. It is sometimes called grahani also.The seventh Kala is called Shukradhara (semen holding) which pervades the whole body of all animals38. He has given the simile as Ghee hidden in milk, jaguary in Sugar Cane. It is two finger width right and left of the opening of the bladder as also under it lie the ducts of semen which pass through the urethra in male.
Shukra pervades the whole body ejected through the erection when the subject is in happy state of mind makes intercourse with women. Here we may safely asset that probably two things were meant by word Shukra. 1) The fine internal secretion of the testes which pervades
the whole body and helps the building of tissues in the male in a peculiar way with moustaches, beards and other distinctive signs and (2) the comparatively crude and visible form called semen which is formed in the testes and passes through the Vasa differentia to the seminal vesicles and thence through the common ejaculatory ducts into the urethra.

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